NEW DELHI — A new pension plan for rickshaw pullers. More money for fisheries. Tax breaks for the middle class and cash handouts to struggling farmers.

On Friday, the Indian government announced its budget, and with a major election looming in the next few months, the spending plan was stuffed with financial inducements intended to woo voters, though they will increase India’s debt beyond targets the government itself has set.

At the same time, Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his ministers have been trying to deflect criticism that they tried to bury an official jobs report that showed unemployment at a 45-year high. Mr. Modi came to power five years ago promising to create millions of jobs for India’s 1.3 billion people.

The latest numbers, leaked to the Indian news media this week, show that even while India’s total economy has been growing, at an impressive 7 percent rate or even higher, unemployment also has been rising, hitting 6.1 percent.

Mr. Modi still leads in opinion polls against Rahul Gandhi, whose Indian National Congress party was deeply damaged by corruption scandals when it was in power. The party’s identity as a family dynasty — Mr. Gandhi recently tapped his younger sister, Priyanka, as a party leader in a strategic state — has alienated some voters, though others seem energized by Priyanka Gandhi’s entry into politics.

She is considered a strong public speaker and a forceful personality. The Congress party is counting on her to appeal to women across caste and religious lines.

As the days draw closer to the election, expected to be held in early May, the Congress party is gaining momentum. A race that once seemed a walk for Mr. Modi now seems too close to call. Indian voters are known for suddenly turning against incumbent leaders.

India’s political landscape is highly fragmented, like Indian society itself. In the last election, in 2014, more than a dozen political parties, rooted in caste, region or religious beliefs, won seats in Parliament.

Most analysts believe neither Mr. Modi’s party, the Bharatiya Janata Party, nor the Congress party will win an outright majority. Regional and caste-based parties will probably become the kingmakers, trading their support for central positions in the next government.

This is where the farmers come in. Farmers are a huge source of votes in India. More than half of India’s population still depends on agriculture to survive. Recent studies show growing distress in farming communities because of population growth, shrinking plots of land, climate change and high fertilizer prices. Each year, thousands of farmers, despondent over dwindling yields and seemingly endless bills, commit suicide.